Reactive dye is the dye that can react with a fibre to form a covalent link that is forming a permanent attachment in the fibre and could not be removed by repeated treatment with boiling water under neutral conditions.
Reactive dyes are mainly used for dyeing cellulose fibres such as cotton and viscose, but they are also increasingly gaining importance for wool and polyamide. The range of available reactive dyes is wide and enables a large number of dyeing techniques to be used. In dyeing cellulose fibres with reactive dyes the following chemicals and auxiliaries are used:
•Alkali (sodium carbonate, bicarbonate and caustic soda)
•Salt (mainly sodium chloride and sulphate)
•Urea may be added to the padding liquor in continuous processes
•Sodium silicate may be added in the cold pad-batch method.
1.Reactive dyes are anionic dyes, which are used for dyeing cellulose, protein and polyamide fibres.
2.Reactive dyes are found in power, liquid and print paste form.
3.During dyeing the reactive group of this dye forms covalent bond with fibre polymer and becomes an integral parts of the fibre.
4.Reactive dyes are soluble in water.
5.They have very good light fastness with rating about 6. The dyes have very stable electron arrangement and can protect the degrading effect of ultra-violet ray.
6.Textile materials dyed with reactive dyes have very good wash fastness with rating Reactive dye gives brighter shades and has moderate rubbing fastness.
7.Dyeing method of reactive dyes is easy. It requires less time and low temperature for dyeing.
8.Reactive dyes are comparatively cheap
9.Reactive dyes have good perspiration fastness with rating 4-5.
10.Reactive dyes have good perspiration fastness.
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