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Disperse dyes are water insoluble non-ionic dyes used to dye manmade fibers from acidic bath, specially designed for dyeing of polyester and are applied along with dispersing agent to retain dyes in fine dispersion.
A class of slightly water-soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured fibers.
Dyes are colored, unsaturated organic chemical compounds capable of giving color to a substrate (a textile), i.e. coloring or dyeing it.

1.Disperse dyes are nonionic dyes. So they are free from ionizing group.
2.They are ready made dyes and are insoluble in water or have very low water solubility.
3.They are organic coloring substances which are suitable for dyeing hydrophobic fibers.
4.Disperse dyes are used for dyeing man made cellulose ester and synthetic fibers specially acetate and polyester fibers and sometimes nylon and acrylic fibers.
5.Carrier or dispersing agents are required for dyeing with disperse dyes.
6.Disperse dyes have fair to good light fastness with rating about 4-5.
7.The wash fastness of these dyes is moderate to good with rating about 3-4.
8.Of all dyestuffs disperse dyes are of smallest molecular size.
9.Generally disperse dyes are derivatives of azo, anthroquinone, nitro and quinine groups.
10.They do not undergo any chemical change during dyeing.
In presence of nitrous oxide, textile materials dyed with certain blue and violet disperse dyes with an anthraquinone structure will fade. This is called gas fading of disperse dyes which is a defect of this dye.
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